Children, unmarried persons, and individuals dying an inauspicious death (e.g., in an epidemic) are buried without much ceremony. But generally, except for the observance of exogamy, the clan system has no important function. "Gond." The change to adulthood is gradual; there is no initiation ceremony. Some Gond women have banded together to help alleviate poverty and promote female empowerment. They often decorate houses with carved doors and panels. Although some Gond groups own a great deal of land, others are classified as Scheduled Tribes, which means they need special social and economic help. As a less sophisticated group, they have faced exploitation and discrimination from their culturally more advanced neighbors. 516 p. Museum of Mankind, Shelagh Weir, and Hira Lal. 2nd ed. PRONUNCIATION: EE-bo It is the most common type of marriage in participative societies for securing bride. They are one of the largest tribal groups in India. ." Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, and Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf (1979). Each Gond village has a headman (known by local names such as mukhia, mahji, or patel ) and a village council (panchayat) chosen by the villagers. The earth, water, and air are ruled by deities that must be venerated and appeased with sacrifices and offerings. The Muria and Their Ghotul. Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Like many other tribes, Gonds worship a high god known as Baradeo, whose alternate names are Bhagavan, Sri Shambu Mahadeo, and Persa Pen. Children, unmarried persons, and individuals dying an inauspicious death (for instance, in an epidemic) are buried without much ceremony. But the very fact that these rajas surrounded themselves with Hindu officials and eagerly adopted Hindu or Mogul methods of administration proves that royalty was alien to tribal democracy. Between the 16th and mid-18th centuries, when Gonds were at the height of their power, Gond dynasties ruled in four kingdoms (Garha-Mandla, Deogarh, Chanda, and Kherla) in central India. Women wear a cotton sari (a length of fabric wrapped around the waist, with one end thrown over the right shoulder) and choli (tight-fitting, cropped blouse). Many of these subsections have assumed different tribal names so that their identity with the Gond tribe is not always clear. Lack of education and low levels of literacy further reduce economic opportunity. In 1364 decks 1% of 213140 decks. Generally, it is good to marry outside the clan. Vol.3: The Scheduled Tribes. Most Gonds, however, speak the broader languages of the region they live in. POPULATION…, PRONUNCIATION: aw-REE-(y)uh Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Iran is the highest producer of this tree gum, which is also called Gond … A Gond clan comprises a group of persons who believe that they are descendants in the male line from a common ancestor. Elwin, Verrier. They suffer exploitation and discrimination, and often are forced to live on less productive lands in remote areas. Disease must be warded off by appeasing deities such as Shitala Mata, Goddess of Smallpox. They consist of a living room, kitchen, veranda, a special room for women to use while menstruating, and a shrine for clan gods. Visiting customs vary throughout the region, though Gonds are normally a hospitable people. All Gond traditions are oral and, consequently, numerous variations of the same tales are recounted. Many villages and homesteads have guest huts where the visitor may stay with some degree of privacy. Maratha power swept into Gond land in the 1740s. Honey is also gathered from the forest. The Gonds of Andhra Pradesh: Tradition and Change in an Indian Tribe. LOCATION: India (Orissa state) 4: People of India. The staples of the Gond diet are two millets known locally as kodo and kutki. Persa Pen is the most distinctive feature of Gond religion. The offerings and sacrifices can be either animal or vegetable; it depends on the type of deity being addressed. $0.18. Gond is a natural gum made of hardened sap taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Most aspects of Gond life, from the greatest festivals to the building of a new cattle shed, are accompanied by sacrifice. From the 14th century onwards, Gond history comes into focus with Muslim writers describing the rise of Gond states in the region. Shamans are persons who easily fall into trances and are then believed to be possessed by deities or spirits that prophesy through their mouths. Average Type Distribution. As "hill people," they traditionally have been associated with hills and uplands in the Deccan Peninsula. According to B. S. Guha, they are Proto-Australoids by race like the Oraons and Maler of Chota Nagpur Plateau. Among many South Asian societies, women in this condition are regarded as ritually polluted and are segregated from the rest of the family. Kinship and marriage customs among the Gonds reflect broader regional patterns. Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. They are listed as a Scheduled Tribe for the purpose of India's system of positive discrimination. Gondwana, ancient supercontinent that incorporated present-day South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, India, Australia, and Antarctica. A village has also its servant castes, such as the Ahir (cowherds), Agaria (blacksmiths), Dhulia (drummers), and Pardhan (bards and singers). In this sense, they are the guardians of the Gond community. Thus, in Chhattisgarh, which was formed in 2000 from sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking districts in southeastern Madhya Pradesh, Gonds number over 4 million people, of the current estimated state total population of c. 24 million people. Many Gonds live around the Satpura Hills, Maikala Range and Son-Deogarh uplands, and on the Bastar plateau. Memorial pillars are erected to honor the dead. The language offers a cultural The Gonds' ties with the forest suggest that, in the past, they were nomadic hunters or food gatherers who took up shifting cultivation. This item appears in Baldur's Gate II: Throne of Bhaal. Many of the Gond clans bear the names of animals or plants, which suggests a totemic origin. Standards of living among the Gonds reflect socioeconomic status. And even among the matrilineal societies, the land is in reality managed and controlled by men. Although some Gond communities have risen to the status of landowners, many are landless laborers. [22] These village deities include Aki Pen, the village guardian and the anwal, the village mother goddess, a similar paradigm to folk traditions of other Dravidian peoples. Encyclopedia.com. [19], In Gond folk(hindu) religion, adherents worship a high god known as Baradeo, whose alternate names are Bhagavan, Sri Shambu Mahadeo, and Persa Pen. The Making of India and Indian Traditions. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. connection between the many Gond groups. Elwin, Verrier (1944). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gonds, "Gonds Similarly, northern Gonds allow widows to remarry a brother of the deceased husband. Violation of the rule of exogamy is considered to be incest. The core region of Gondwana can be considered to be the eastern part of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, the parts of Madhya Pradesh immediately to the north of it, and parts of the west of Chhattisgar. Gonds have lent their name to Gondwana ("the Land of the Gonds"), the part of India in which they live. The Girdle of Gond is a girdle that boosts some thieving abilities. Medicine. POPULATION: around 700,000 (est.) Ownership normally rests with their fathers, brothers or husbands. Presence of Gond. Sometimes it is ground and baked into a flat cake. Gondi belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is related to Tamil and Kannada. Pregnancy and birth are surrounded with protective rites against magic spells and evil influences. The designation "Naga" is applied to the numerous Indo-Mongoloid tribes living in the hill country at the…, Chakmas "Gonds Houses are usually built of mud and thatch. POPULATION: 31 million Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. A bride-price is paid by the father of the groom. They are inventive in composing new songs, folktales, legends, and myths and in retelling them dramatically. Witches, usually women, are held to bring sickness and misfortune to the community. [b][25][26], The Gonds venerate plants and animals, especially the Saja tree. Increasing Brahminical influence has meant that cremation has become more and more common. The Gonds reached even the hills along the southern bank of the Ganges. Cockfighting is a favorite pastime. PRONUNCIATION: GAHNDSALTERNATE NAMES: Koi; KoiturLOCATION: IndiaPOPULATION: About 14 millionLANGUAGE: GondiRELIGION: Cult of the Persa Pen (clan deities); ancestor spirit worshipRELATED ARTICLES: Vol. Most of these ideas were basis for their time-keeping and calendrical activities. Each clan has their own persa pen, meaning "great god." Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1995. The Gond and Bhumia of Eastern Mandla. Fuchs, Stephen (1960). The Gonds practice clan exogamy, considering intermarriage within a clan to be incest. They believe that adultery is punished by the ancestral spirits that can cause crop failure or an epidemic among humans and cattle. While they are by no means all alike, there is a limited measure of cultural uniformity among these groups. They believe each human being has two souls, the life spirit and the shadow. In fact, the number of Gonds is really much higher, since many Gond communities have been fully accepted into the Hindu caste system, have adopted another name, and have completely abandoned their original tribal ways of life. … Traditional Gond Art. These deities and spirits may be benevolent, but often they are capricious, malevolent, and prone to harming human beings, especially Individuals who have made themselves vulnerable by breaking a rule of the tribal code. The Art of Gond #HandmadeInIndia A form of painting from folk and tribal art that is practiced by one of the largest tribes in India, the work of Gond artists is rooted in their folk tales and … Girls are considered full-grown at their first menstruation. The Gonds form the largest tribal group in the Indian sub-continent and perhaps even in the entire world. The person being possessed by the spirit ceases to have any responsibility for their actions. ." Marriage is obligatory. According to Gond mythology, the dead have an interest in the future of the living, and so the dead are placated so that the living remain prosperous. When roasted in ghee, … 3, 38-143. Scholars believe that Gonds ruled in Gondwana, a region extending from what is now eastern Madhya Pradesh to western Odisha and from northern Andhra Pradesh to the southeastern corner of Uttar Pradesh, between the 13th and 19th centuries AD. 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